Until now there are several types of solar cells that successfully developed by researchers to get solar cell devices that have high efficiency or to get a cheap and easy solar cell device in the making. Solar cells are used for off grid solar system.
The first type successfully developed is a single crystalline silicon (laminated) type of wafer. This type of its development is able to produce a very high efficiency. The biggest problem faced in the development of single crystal silicon for commercially produced is the extremely high price making the resulting solar cell panels inefficient as an alternative energy source.
The second type of solar cell is a poly crystalline silicon wafer type. Currently, almost most of the solar cell panels circulating in the commercial market come from the screen printing of this type of poly crystalline silicon. Crystal crystalline silicon wafers are made by making a thin layer of silicone rod by the wire-sawing method. Has each layer a thickness of about 250- 50 micrometres.
This type of solar cell has a cheaper manufacturing price although its efficiency level is lower when compared with single crystal silicon. Companies that actively produce this type of solar cell is GT Solar, BP, Sharp, and Kyocera Solar.
Both types of silicon wafer above are known as the first generation of solar cells that have a thickness in the range of 180 to 240 micro meters. Earlier research and has long been done by researchers to make silicon-based solar cells has become a growing technology and is dominated by researchers and industry. This solar cell device in its development has been able to reach 25 years of active age.
The second generation of solar cells is thin film solar cells (thin film). The idea of making thin-film solar cells is to reduce the cost of making solar cells since this type uses only less than 1% of the silicon feedstock when compared to raw materials for wafer type silicon. With such a high savings in the raw material, it makes the price per kWh of energy raised to be cheaper.